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If you find this helpful, please share with others. Education about nutrition is vital for public health. Global rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cancer have steadily increased to record high levels.

In writing this, I have done my best to identify objective sources of scientific evidence. Nutrition has been widely subject to censorship and biased studies by powerful corporations and institutional authorities working together to protect their financial interests.

Psychology is also an important factor. With a lifetime of cultural influences and ingrained habits, it takes motivation and effort to change. The rewards are considerable. New choices can lead to improved health for better quality of life.

Alternate-Day Fasting

Alternate-day fasting can be highly beneficial for health and body composition. A typical approach is to alternate between a day of normal eating without calorie restriction, and a day of either no eating or a single meal limited to around 500 calories.

This has helped me become lean and remain so long term, without feeling deprived of food. I find this much more effective and easier to follow than daily calorie restriction. I also experience elevated mood and energy.

Excerpt from James B. Johnson, MD., Donald R. Laub Sr., MD. The Alternate-Day Diet (Revised ed., p. 50). Penguin Group 2013.

People following the Alternate-Day Diet universally experience an increase in energy after just a few down days. While mood and energy also improved on the up days, there appears to be a greater change on the down days. Other studies of short-term fasting have shown an increase in circulating nor-epinephrine and cortisol levels. The improved mood may be mediated through an increase in the brain in the concentration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which acts to increase antidepressant action in the human brain and is known to increase in the brains of alternate-day-fed animals.

Studies described in the book have shown that alternate-day fasting can improve cognitive functioning, immune system, and pancreatic function, along with reduction of inflammation and oxidative damage for slower aging and lower risk of arthritis, asthma, cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, neurodegeneration, and stroke.

Compared to daily calorie restriction, alternate-day fasting has additional hormonal effects that decrease hunger, improve insulin response, increase energy, and maintain basal metabolic rate. While fasting, insulin blood levels decrease and human growth hormone levels increase to burn fat. Cellular repair increases. Gene expression changes for disease prevention and increased longevity.

Dr. Jason Fung has seen how alternate-day fasting can significantly improve insulin sensitivity in patients, resulting in weight loss, reversal of type 2 diabetes, and reduced medication dependency. In the article Does Fasting Burn Muscle? (Medium.com 2018), he mentioned clinical evidence that repeated alternate-day fasting does not cause muscle loss. Other reported benefits include reduction in waist circumference, body fat, blood pressure, cholesterol, and triglycerides.


Studies find that a diet emphasizing a wide variety of whole plant foods with minimal processing can (1) improve digestion and immune system health; (2) stabilize blood sugar and benefit weight loss; (3) lower blood pressure, cholesterol, and inflammation; (4) reduce risk of arthritis, cancer, cognitive decline, diabetes, mental illness, obesity, and stroke; and (5) prevent and reverse heart disease.

The following is my regular food intake that I find works best for me:

I choose "organic" when available and affordable for potentially lower exposure to harmful synthetic herbicides and pesticides. To reduce these, I wash produce and then soak in a sodium bicarbonate solution (baking soda with no additives). I also find sodium bicarbonate helpful when brushing my teeth.

For water I use glass and stainless steel containers, and glass containers for storing cooked food. I use stainless steel mixing bowls and utensils, nickel-free stainless steel pots and pans, roasting pans with enamel porcelain surface, and cast iron skillets.

To maintain a durable coating on cast iron skillets, I apply a very thin light coat of flax seed oil (this kind works best) all over the clean skillets. I place them upside upside down in the oven, turn on the oven fan, bake the skillets at 450 °F (232 °C) for one hour, and allow to cool in the oven. I find the coating will last for many months with appropriate care. Prolonged cooking of wet acidic foods in the skillets can damage the coating and leach iron into the food.

I avoid consuming these regularly:

I avoid liquids and cooked foods exposed to plastics due to estrogenic chemicals and microplastic particles linked to adverse effects. I avoid Teflon-coated cookware which can release toxic chemicals. I avoid containers and cookware made of aluminum, which in the body may damage DNA and accumulate in the brain over a lifetime, increasing potential for dementia. I avoid fluoride and mercury which can damage the brain.


A staple food in many cultures, legumes (beans, chickpeas, lentils, peas) are a nutritious type of vegetable with high fiber and protein content. Studies have shown that legumes can (1) benefit weight control; (2) reduce blood glucose levels and risk of type 2 diabetes; (3) reduce blood pressure, cholesterol, triglycerides, and risk of heart disease; and (4) reduce risk of several types of cancer.

The following method allows me to prepare enough cooked legumes to eat for several weeks. I find that soaking, rinsing, and high oven heat greatly reduces the gas-forming compounds, making the legumes easy to digest.

I use two "Granite Ware 18 inch Covered Oval Roaster (F0509)". These roasting pans have an enamel porcelain surface and steel core. I also use eight "Pyrex Glass Food Storage Container with Lid (7 cup capacity)".

Into each of the two roasting pans, add 10 US cups of mixed dried legumes (20 US cups total). Fill each pan with water all the way to the top, cover with lid, and let the legumes soak for 12-24 hours. Afterward, drain and rinse the legumes.

Next add enough fresh water in each pan to slightly cover the legumes, just enough so that they begin to float. Optional: Add a level 1 US teaspoon of sodium bicarbonate (baking soda with no additives) into the water of each pan to further reduce the gas-forming compounds.

Cover the pans with lids and bake them in the oven at 350 °F (177 °C) for two hours. Turn off the oven heat and leave the legumes in the closed oven. The legumes will continue to cook and slowly cool. After several hours, remove the roasting pans from the oven and scoop the legumes into the glass containers.

Put one of the containers in the refridgerator and eat the legumes during the week. Put the other containers in the freezer. As needed, remove one container a day before use and allow the legumes to thaw in the refridgerator.

Omega-3 Fatty Acids

Flax seeds are high in short-chain omega-3 fatty acids, fiber, and antioxidants. These may have a mild estrogenic effect, but overall the benefits appear to be significant. Studies indicate these may improve blood pressure and cholesterol, as well as reduce risk of heart disease, inflammation, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and several types of cancer.

I regularly eat 1/4 US cup (40 g) of raw flax seeds. I use an electric grinder (KitchenAid blade coffee and spice grinder combo pack) to reduce these into flour and then add a little water and spices.

Seafood may contain pollutants such as dioxin, heavy metals, microplastics, oil spill dispersants, PCBs, pesticides, and radiation. From various studies with mixed findings, there is question whether supplemental fish oil would be beneficial. Even after molecular distillation, there may still be toxic contaminants. Fish oil is often an industry waste product and highly susceptible to becoming rancid, with potential for induced oxidative damage and increased inflammation.

For those who want to supplement, another option is preformed EPA and DHA (long-chain omega-3 fatty acids) from algae oil derived from phytoplankton, grown under controlled conditions in fresh water and purified. Phytoplankton are in a different biological kingdom than blue-green algae which may contain toxins.


The estimated adult world average for sodium is 3950 mg/day. The American Heart Association and NASEM have issued guidelines for healthy adults to consume 1500 mg/day sodium. I noticed having less energy when I briefly tried that out of curiosity, which lead me to further reading.

Dr. David Brownstein observed that low sodium diets can lead to hormonal disruption. Dr. Jason Fung indicated that consuming enough sodium is crucial for maintaining healthy blood pressure and volume. In The Salt Scam (Medium.com 2018) he noted two large studies that found people with a low sodium intake had 15-18% higher mortality, compared to those with the highest sodium intake. Another interesting article mentioned similar findings from a pooled analysis of four different studies:

Excerpt from Gavin Van De Walle, MS, RD. How Much Sodium Should You Have per Day? Healthline.com 2018.

In a review study comprising more than 133,000 people with and without high blood pressure from 49 countries across six continents, researchers examined how sodium intake affected the risk of heart disease and early death.

The review showed that — regardless of blood pressure — people who consumed less than 3,000 mg (3 grams) of sodium per day were more likely to have heart disease or die compared to people who consumed 4,000–5,000 mg (4–5 grams).

What’s more, those who consumed less than 3,000 mg (3 grams) of sodium per day had worse health outcomes than people consuming 7,000 mg (7 grams).

I prefer dietary salt (sodium chloride) that is mined from ancient underground deposits and purified by the manufacturer. One such product with no additives is Morton Canning & Pickling Salt. I get iodine from another source.

I avoid sea salt which studies find often contains microplastics. I avoid gourmet specialty salts which may contain higher amounts of lead than purified salt.

Excerpt from SPEX CertiPrep. Analysis of Gourmet Salts for the Presence of Heavy Metals (p. 2). 2012.

Four of the black or grey salts contained around 1 μg/g of lead. The highest concentration of lead (1.3 μg/g) was found in sample #4. Lead levels in table salt were 0.44 μg/g.

Lead content in 7.5 g of salt (~3000 mg sodium in a level 1 US teaspoon) based on their findings:
3.3 mcg in table salt
7.5 mcg in four of the black or grey salts
9.8 mcg in sample #4 (Sel Gris De Guerande, a French sea salt)

Lead recommended maximum total daily intake from food per U.S. FDA:
3 mcg/day children
12.5 mcg/day adults

Lead is a toxic heavy metal. Elevated lead levels in the body are common and associated with significantly increased risk of disease and mortality. High-dose vitamin C and crushed raw garlic can assist the body in reducing lead levels.


Studies find that raw sauerkraut with probiotic bacteria may benefit bones, brain, digestion, heart, immune system, and reduce risk of cancer. I eat a small amount regularly and make it using the following method.

Weigh a head of cabbage on a food scale. Chop up the cabbage and add to a powerful blender such as Blendtec or Vitamix. Calculate 2% of the cabbage weight (e.g. 1000 g cabbage × 0.02 = 20 g salt), measure that amount of salt on the food scale, and add to blender.

Blend the cabbage to a thick consistency, gradually adding water and pushing down the cabbage as needed. Pour the blended mixture to completely fill glass canning jars. I use the French type with thick rubber seal and hinged lid that allows excess pressure to release. Label the jars with the current date and place them in a tray in a dark location at 60-75 °F (16-24 °C) for 4-8 weeks, depending on temperature. During that time a small amount of liquid may be released from the jars. Afterward rinse the outside of the jars and refridgerate. For best taste eat the sauerkraut within a few months.


For inexpensive sources of quality supplements, I look for an established reputation with good manufacturing practices and buy in quantity when discounted. Bulk powder/crystal forms can be economical and without additives.

I take these regularly:

For bone health, I do weight-bearing exercise and also consider my intake of boron, magnesium, potassium, vitamin C, vitamin D, and vitamin K. I consume sufficient calcium from food sources. Dr. Thomas E. Levy noted the following in his book about calcium:

Excerpt from Thomas E. Levy, MD, JD. Death by Calcium (1st ed., pp. 35-36). MedFox 2013.

You are 30% more likely to have a heart attack and up to 20% more likely to have a stroke if you take an extra 500 mg of calcium or more per day — that’s the consensus derived from a comprehensive review of 15 independent clinical investigations. The reviewing researchers reported that subjects taking calcium supplements (500 mg or more per day) had a 27 to 31% higher risk of heart attack and a 12 to 20% greater risk of stroke.

Dump more calcium into the caldron and the brew becomes even more deadly. A study of over 61,000 participants viewed over a 19-year period concludes that those with calcium intakes over 1,400 mg/day had an alarming 40% increased risk of death from cardiovascular disease in general and a 114% increase in risk of death from a reduced flow of blood to the heart muscle (ischemic heart disease).


An article (Health-Science-Spirit.com 2011) by Walter Last described how boron is important for vitamin D and parathyroid glands that regulate calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus for healthy bones, joints, and teeth. Boron deficiency can lead to arthritis and calcification of soft tissues. Boron supplementation may benefit testosterone and estrogen levels, as well as cognition and memory.

I found this to be a comprehensive summary of related research:

Excerpt from Lara Pizzorno, MDiv, MA, LMT. Nothing Boring About Boron. Integrative Medicine: A Clinician's Journal 2015;14(4):35–48.

Boron has been proven to be an important trace mineral because it (1) is essential for the growth and maintenance of bone; (2) greatly improves wound healing; (3) beneficially impacts the body’s use of estrogen, testosterone, and vitamin D; (4) boosts magnesium absorption; (5) reduces levels of inflammatory biomarkers, such as hs-CRP and TNF-α; (6) raises levels of antioxidant enzymes, such as SOD, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase; (7) protects against pesticide-induced oxidative stress and heavy-metal toxicity; (8) improves brain electrical activity, cognitive performance, and short-term memory in elders; (9) influences the formation and activity of key biomolecules, such as SAM-e and NAD+; (10) has demonstrated preventive and therapeutic effects in a number of cancers, such as prostate, cervical, and lung cancers and multiple and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma; and (11) may help ameliorate the adverse effects of traditional chemotherapeutic agents.

Borax is an compound of boron. Borax (sodium borate) is a natural mineral mined from the earth like salt (sodium chloride), both of which have a long history of being used to preserve food. I read that borax and salt are generally considered safe in small amounts and of similar toxicity (LD50) in large amounts.

20 Mule Team Borax has been manufactured since 1891 from one of the world’s largest borax deposits in California. The only processing it receives after its removal from the ground is washing, drying and packaging. The product is packaged in its pure form with no chemical additives. The product is 99.5% pure and the remaining 0.5% contains naturally occurring trace minerals, with no risk of heavy metals. I read that pharmaceutical grade borax is not noticeably purer or better.

To make a borax solution, I add a level 1 US teaspoon of borax powder (average 4620 mg on my Weighmax CT20 milligram scale) and 16 US fluid ounces of purified water into a cooking pot. I heat on the stove until the solution boils for one minute and stir until the borax is dissolved. I pour the solution into a labeled glass jar with lid and store in a dark location at room temperature. I wash my hands after handling borax powder and am careful not to get it in my eyes.

4620 mg borax powder × 0.113 (11.3% boron by weight) = 522 mg boron, ÷ 64 (number of 1/2 US tablespoons in 16 US fluid ounces water) = 8 mg boron

A 1/2 US tablespoon of this solution with 8 mg boron is similar to the estimated 5-8 mg/day boron intake for people in Israel and western Australia, where there is a high level of boron in the environment and a low rate of arthritis at 1% or less. This amount is well under the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) of 20 mg/day boron, determined unlikely to cause any adverse effects for healthy adults in long-term use.


For most of my adult life I took a quality supplement which included the RDA of 150 mcg/day iodine. Then when I began supplementation with a much higher amount of iodine at 12 mg/day, I noticed a significant change that continues to present day — better sleep quality, higher testosterone, and more energy.

Before starting, I read a variety of information about potential benefits and safety of dosage. I found these two books to be helpful:

Excerpt from David Brownstein, MD. Iodine: Why You Need It, Why You Can't Live Without It. 5th ed. Medical Alternatives 2014.

Iodine is the most misunderstood nutrient. After 17 years of practicing medicine, I can say that it is impossible to achieve your optimal health if you do not have adequate iodine levels. I have yet to see any item that is more important to promoting health or optimizing the function of the immune system than iodine. Learn what forms of iodine you need and why there is not enough iodine in salt. See how iodine can help: breast cancer, fibrocystic breast disease, detoxification, fatigue, Graves' disease, and Hashimoto's disease. Find out why iodine deficiency may be the root cause of thyroid problems including hypothyroidism and thyroid cancer. Discover how to get iodine in your diet and improve your immune system.

Excerpt from Lynne Farrow. The Iodine Crisis, What You Don’t Know About Iodine Can Wreck Your Life. 1st ed. Devon 2013.

Thanks to environmental pollutants Iodine deficiency has become a worldwide epidemic. Everybody knows pollutants cause cancer. What they don't know is that these pollutants cause a deficiency that can make us sick, fat and stupid. Iodized salt — supposedly a solution to iodine deficiency — is actually a nutritional scam which provides a false sense of security. The Iodine Crisis explains how we became so deficient, then shows the time-tested solution to reversing many conditions. Lynne Farrow reveals how she and thousands of other patient-activists changed their lives by researching and using iodine. Frequently Asked Questions cover everything you need to know about iodine. The proof of iodine's benefit is demonstrated by the dramatic case studies shared in this book.

I also found the iodine research studies published by Optimox to be interesting, especially publications #01, #02, and #04. In their research Dr. Guy Abraham and associates determined through laboratory testing that 12.5 mg/day iodine can allow healthy adults to achieve optimal iodine levels throughout the body, with many potential benefits.

Excerpt from Guy E. Abraham, MD. The Wolff-Chaikoff Effect: Crying Wolf? The Original Internist 2005;12(3):112-118. Reprinted on Optimox.com.

To wrap it up, proper amounts of iodine in the food supply should be considered one of a nation's greatest assets. Removing iodine from the food supply is a form major mistake. Supplying daily intake of iodine for whole body sufficiency (100-400 times the RDA) gives protection against goitrogens and radioactive iodine/iodide fallout; improves immune functions, resulting in an adequate defense system against infection; decreases singlet oxygen formation which is the major cause of oxidative damage to DNA and macromolecules, resulting in an anticarcinogenic effect in every organ in the human body; results in a detoxifying effect by increasing urinary excretion of the toxic metals lead, mercury, cadmium, and aluminum, as well as the goitrogens fluoride and bromide; normalizes hormone receptor functions resulting in improved response to thyroid hormones both endogenous and exogenous; and results in better control of blood sugar in diabetic patients; stabilizes cardiac rhythm, obviating the need for the toxic sustained release form of iodine, amiodarone; and normalizes blood pressure without medication in hypertensive patients. Iodine deficiency is the major cause of cognitive impairment, worldwide. Therefore, iodine sufficiency would result in optimal cognitive function, something of great importance to every nation.

Historically the Japanese consumed a similar high amount with an estimated 5.3-13.8 mg/day iodine, mostly from seaweed. Lynne Farrow noted that in present day seaweed may be polluted with heavy metals, oil spill dispersants, radiation, or other industrial contaminants from seawater. Dr. David Brownstein had a few different brands of seaweed analyzed by a laboratory. About 50% of the samples had very high levels of mercury and bromide, which can interfere with the body’s ability to use iodine. Also the longer the seaweed has been stored after processing, the more iodine is lost through sublimation into a gaseous state.

The following study tested different forms of dry iodine supplements using chromatography, ion-coupled mass spectrometry, and X-ray spectrometry. They determined these supplements are likely to be equivalent.

Excerpts from Darrow Hand, ND., Denis Wilson, MD. Iodine or Iodide? A Laboratory Evaluation of the Content of ­Powdered Iodine Supplements. Journal of Restorative Medicine 2017;6(1):62-68.

"Some proponents of supplementation believe that products containing both iodine (I2) and iodide (I−) are therapeutically superior to iodide-only formulations. As a step toward evaluating this claim, we tested three commercially available products that list both iodine and iodide on the label, to determine their content."

"In the experiment we conducted, we found that when dry supplements were dissolved in deionized (distilled) water or a mild base, the resulting solution contained only monoatomic iodide (I−), regardless of how the supplements were initially manufactured. Saliva or taking the dry supplements with water would have the same effect. Thus, any potential benefit from these powdered products comes from iodide. The body easily converts iodide to iodine, provided the conversion mechanisms are not impaired. Dry products made with only iodide are likely to be substantially equivalent to dry products made with both forms."

For an inexpensive source of iodine, I purchased USP pharma-grade potassium iodide powder crystals from CarolinaChemical.com. The product was manufactured by SQM, an established chemical company in Chile which is the largest global producer of iodine.

To make an iodide solution, I add 1/8 US teaspoon of potassium iodide powder (just scooped and leveled off, not packed down, 940-1030 mg on my Weighmax CT20 milligram scale) into 16 US fluid ounces of purified water at room temperature in a labeled glass jar with lid. I stir until the powder is dissolved and store the solution in a dark location at room temperature.

1000 mg potassium iodide powder × 0.7645 (76.45% iodine by weight) = 765 mg iodine, ÷ 64 (number of 1/2 US tablespoons in 16 US fluid ounces water) = 12 mg iodine

A 1/2 US tablespoon of the solution contains 12 mg iodine (as iodide). I gradually worked up to that daily intake. I read that if suddenly taking high amounts of iodine, some people experience temporary side effects as iodine helps the body excrete stored toxins.

Dr. David Brownstein mentioned in his book that magnesium, selenium, vitamin B complex, vitamin C, and zinc supplementation may help the body more efficiently utilize higher amounts of iodine. I had already been taking those supplements for many years, so they were not responsible for my noticeable increase in testosterone. In the article Iodine Increases Testosterone and Leydig Cell Functionality (iTestosterone.com 2017), Robert Clark explained how iodine can flush out common toxic halogens from leydig cells for improved production of testosterone.


From research Linus Pauling indicated that lysine (an amino acid) and high-dose vitamin C may benefit health of arteries and heart. He suggested at least 2000 mg/day lysine for prevention of cardiovascular disease, and 5000-6000 mg/day if diagnosed with that condition.

The article Dr. Sydney Bush: Why Not the Nobel Prize? (Ken Walker, MD. DocGiff.com 2019) described further evidence. An optometrist prescribed lysine and vitamin C for patients, and discovered from retina photos that hardening of arteries was significantly reduced.

Bio-Virus Research Inc. reported on the successful use of lysine during viral infections at a clinic in the Dominican Republic. Since publication, the use of lysine expanded to 1000+ patients with good results.

Excerpts from Christopher Kagan, MD., Alexander Chaihorsky, MS., et al. Lysine Therapy for SARS-CoV-2. Bio-Virus Research 2020.

"We tested the clinical efficacy of lysine on SARS-CoV-2. Tabulated data from 40+ subjects, and non-tabulated data from 100+ subjects; 8 were in the United States, and the majority in the Dominican Republic."

"The dose range administered was 1000 mg to 4000 mg, with the latter rarely given, and an average dose of 2000 mg. We do not recommend exceeding 3000 mg due to possible bradykinin buildup causing a cough or increasing coughing in some subjects."

"Restriction of coffee (and other high caffeine drinks), the importance of which cannot be stressed enough, and observing the arginine restricted diet is critical to the speed of recovery and success of treatment."

"Approximately 80% of acute stage Covid-19 sufferers given lysine displayed a minimum 70% reduction in symptoms in the first 48 hours (not including long term symptomatic subjects)."

Excerpts from Christopher Kagan, MD., Alexander Chaihorsky, MS., et al. Amino Acid L-Lysine SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Prophylaxis. Bio-Virus Research 2020.

"The over the counter amino acid L-Lysine has now been shown in the small group reported here to be an extremely effective prophylaxis regimen against SARS-CoV-2."

"30 medical professionals at Salud Publica (public health) Department in Santiago, Dominican Republic, following the suggestion and advice of a member of the Bio-Virus team, self-administered the L-Lysine treatment protocol referenced above (1) of 2 gms per day of lysine with the required dietary restrictions."

"After three months, through the spring to summer peak of COVID-19 cases in the Dominican Republic, with daily face-to-face exposure to SARS-CoV-2 patients, not a single doctor, nurse, or staff member fell ill or tested positive."

A laboratory study by researchers in Taiwan had similar findings:

Excerpt from Melano I, Kuo L-L, Lo Y-C, Sung P-W, Tien N, Su W-C. Effects of Basic Amino Acids and Their Derivatives on SARS-CoV-2 and Influenza-A Virus Infection. Viruses 2021;13(7):1301.

Amino acids have been implicated with virus infection and replication. Here, we demonstrate the effects of two basic amino acids, arginine and lysine, and their ester derivatives on infection of two enveloped viruses, SARS-CoV-2, and influenza A virus. We found that lysine and its ester derivative can efficiently block infection of both viruses in vitro. Furthermore, the arginine ester derivative caused a significant boost in virus infection. Studies on their mechanism of action revealed that the compounds potentially disturb virus uncoating rather than virus attachment and endosomal acidification. Our findings suggest that lysine supplementation and the reduction of arginine-rich food intake can be considered as prophylactic and therapeutic regimens against these viruses while also providing a paradigm for the development of broad-spectrum antivirals.

To measure L-lysine HCl powder, I used "Norpro mini stainless steel measuring spoons, set of 5 (TAD, DASH, PINCH, SMIDGEN and DROP)" along with a set of high-quality US measuring spoons. The powder was packed into the spoon and leveled off. I observed the following approximate measurements on my Weighmax CT20 milligram scale.

(Packed Leveled)
(Fine Powder)
DROP 36 mg 42 mg
SMIDGEN 71 mg 83 mg
PINCH 170 mg 200 mg
DASH 283 mg 333 mg
1/8 US teaspoon 425 mg 500 mg
TAD 708 mg 833 mg
1/4 US teaspoon 850 mg 1000 mg
1/2 US teaspoon 1700 mg 2000 mg
1 US teaspoon 3400 mg 4000 mg
1/2 US tablespoon 5100 mg 6000 mg


Studies referenced in the following publications have shown that magnesium supplementation can reduce risk of arthritis, asthma, cancer, depression, diabetes, heart disease, inflammation, osteoporosis, stroke, and overall mortality. It may also help increase vitamin D levels and reduce risk of kidney stones.

The article Magnesium Chloride for Health & Rejuvenation (Walter Last. Health-Science-Spirit.com 2008) described the therapeutic use of magnesium chloride. Magnesium is important for bones, teeth, cellular energy production and repair, enzyme reactions, brain, nervous system, heart, and muscle activity.

Dr. Carolyn Dean has extensively studied the therapeutic use of magnesium. In the following article, she suggested magnesium chloride or magnesium citrate to avoid a laxative effect that may occur with other forms of supplemental magnesium.

Excerpt from Carolyn Dean, MD, ND. MAGNESIUM. Orthomolecular Medicine News Service 2017.

However, I contend that magnesium deficiency is constantly being misdiagnosed as many different diseases, so I am merely suggesting that people treat their magnesium deficiency. Using high doses of magnesium (600-1200 mg elemental magnesium per day) for migraines, high blood pressure, angina, diabetes, high cholesterol, muscle cramps and spasms, nerve tingling and burning, is far less invasive than immediately prescribing drugs. I've observed thousands of people using therapeutic doses of a non-laxative form of magnesium with tremendous success.

Her book further described the potential benefits of magnesium for a wide variety of conditions, including the importance for brain health:

Excerpt from Carolyn Dean, MD, ND. The Magnesium Miracle (2nd ed., p. 343). Ballantine 2017.

Research indicates that ample magnesium can protect brain cells from the damaging effects of aluminum, beryllium, cadmium, lead, mercury, and nickel. We also know that low levels of brain magnesium contribute to the deposition of heavy metals in the brain that heralds Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s. It appears that the metals compete with magnesium for entry into the brain cells. If magnesium is low in the brain, heavy metals gain access much more readily.

Dr. Thomas E. Levy also wrote a comphrehensive book about magnesium:

Excerpt from Thomas E. Levy, MD, JD. Magnesium: Reversing Disease (1st ed., pp. 28-29). MedFox 2019.

Ironically, as essential as magnesium is, it is often referred to as the “forgotten electrolyte,” as clinicians continue to fail to realize its vital role in supporting optimal health in every tissue type and organ system of the body. When a serum magnesium level is clearly low, the clinician might start magnesium supplementation even though it should always be initiated in that situation. Since magnesium does most of its work inside the body’s cells, substantial body-wide deficiencies of magnesium are common even in the face of a normal serum magnesium level. And, much more often than not, this “hidden” deficiency remains unaddressed for the lifetime of the patient. As will be demonstrated in subsequent chapters, this unaddressed state of magnesium deficiency is not only the origin of many diseases, it reliably promotes and further aggravates all known diseases.

Sources of magnesium chloride such as the Dead Sea, Great Salt Lake, and the manufactured form sold by chemical supply houses may contain significant levels of heavy metals.

One of the cleanest sources of magnesium chloride is the deep underground ancient Zechstein seabed in the Netherlands. Hot water extraction and evaporation are used to produce magnesium chloride hexahydrate crystals/flakes in a purified form, with no risk of heavy metals. I use an electric grinder (KitchenAid blade coffee and spice grinder combo pack) to reduce the crystals/flakes into fine powder.

To measure magnesium chloride hexahydrate powder, I used a set of high-quality US measuring spoons. The powder was packed into the spoon and leveled off. I observed the following approximate measurements on my Weighmax CT20 milligram scale.

(Packed Leveled)
1/4 US teaspoon 150 mg 1.25 g
1/2 US teaspoon 300 mg 2.5 g
1 US teaspoon 600 mg 5.0 g
1/2 US tablespoon 900 mg 7.5 g


Studies referenced in the following publications indicate that niacin may improve cardiovascular health by raising good cholesterol (HDL) while reducing total cholesterol, triglycerides, cholesterol-associated lipoprotein (VLDL), and hardening of arteries. Also reported are potential benefits for allergies, arthritis, attention deficit disorder, blood circulation, cancer prevention, cataracts, DNA repair, immune system, inflammation, mental illness, migraine headache, neurological disorders, skin conditions, sleep quality, and toxin removal.

I read that niacin (immediate-release nicotinic acid) has nearly 100% absorption and is the most beneficial, safest type of vitamin B3 in high dosage. Other types of vitamin B3 without a flush sensation have a lower degree of liver safety, especially extended/sustained/time-release niacin. Inositol hexaniacinate has lower absorption and is less effective. Niacinamide has no cardiovascular benefit.

The book "Niacin: The Real Story" (1st ed., p. 124. Abram Hoffer, MD, PhD., Andrew W. Saul, PhD., Harold D. Foster, PhD. Basic Health 2012) described related studies. For example, Dr. Edwin Boyle at NIH followed 160 coronary patients using 3 g/day niacin for 10 years and found that mortality was greatly reduced, 90% below the expected average. He concluded, "From the strictly medical viewpoint, I believe all patients taking niacin would survive longer and enjoy life much more."

In the early 1950s Dr. Abram Hoffer began research and became a world authority on the therapeutic use of niacin. In 1968 he founded the Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine and was editor-in-chief for four decades. He used niacin throughout his 55-year career as a physician to help an estimated 5000 schizophrenic patients with a 90% recovery rate.

He usually started them at 3 g/day niacin in divided doses and noted that tests have shown this to increase liver activity, which is not necessarily a sign of liver pathology. His article Vitamin B-3: Niacin and Its Amide (Abram Hoffer, MD, PhD. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients. 1995;147:30-39) included a guideline of 0.5-3 g/day niacin for healthy people, and 1-10 g/day niacin for various conditions including psychological stress, mental illness, high cholesterol, pregnancy, lactation, and infections such as cold or flu.

In October 2012 Andrew W. Saul was interviewed by Dr. Joseph Mercola about vitamin B3. They discussed different forms, safety of dosage, and how it has been successfully used to benefit arthritis, cardiovascular system, mental health, and sleep quality. When asked Saul said he usually took the same amount that Dr. Hoffer personally took, 3-4 g/day niacin with meals.

In an article about dosage and the flush sensation, Saul suggested starting with very small amounts of niacin and gradually increasing until the first flush is noticed. He noted there are physicians who consider the RDA of 20 mg/day niacin as too low for optimum health, and that also taking a separate B-complex supplement can be beneficial.

To measure niacin (immediate-release nicotinic acid) vitamin B3 powder, I used "Norpro mini stainless steel measuring spoons, set of 5 (TAD, DASH, PINCH, SMIDGEN and DROP)" along with a set of high-quality US measuring spoons. The powder was packed into the spoon and leveled off. I observed the following approximate measurements on my Weighmax CT20 milligram scale.

(Packed Leveled)
DROP 42 mg
PINCH 200 mg
DASH 333 mg
1/8 US teaspoon 500 mg
TAD 833 mg
1/4 US teaspoon 1000 mg
1/2 US teaspoon 2000 mg
1 US teaspoon 4000 mg
1/2 US tablespoon 6000 mg


Caution: I read that supplemental potassium in excessive amounts could be harmful or fatal, and may not be appropriate with certain medications or conditions such as impaired kidney function.

The article Potassium, Your Invisible Friend (Malcolm Kendrick, MD. DrMalcolmKendrick.org 2013) suggested an extra 2 g/day potassium for healthy adults. Studies have shown potential benefits include reduced risk of arrhythmia, cancer, cardiovascular disease, heart attack, high blood pressure, stroke, and overall mortality.

Supplemental potassium may also benefit bone health.

Excerpts from B Dawson-Hughes. Effect of Potassium Bicarbonate Supplementation on Bone and Muscle. Tufts University 2006.

"There is increasing evidence that the acid-base balance of diet plays an important role in the health of bones and muscles. An excess of acid in the body can result in calcium loss and muscle breakdown. Potassium bicarbonate, a base supplement, can neutralize acid within the body."

"The typical American diet of dairy products, grains, and meats results in excess acid build-up in the body. The kidney is often unable to remove this excess acid quickly enough, resulting in mildly elevated blood acidity. In an attempt to neutralize the acidity, the body releases calcium from its bones. Over time, however, this calcium loss can lead to decreased bone density and possibly osteoporosis."

Excerpts from B Dawson-Hughes, SS Harris, et al. Potassium Bicarbonate Supplementation Lowers Bone Turnover and Calcium Excretion in Older Men and Women: A Randomized Dose-Finding Trial. J Bone Miner Res 2015;30(11):2103-2111.

"The results of this study, including effects of KHCO3 on calcium excretion and markers of bone turnover, suggest that correcting mild metabolic acidosis is beneficial to bone. Compared with placebo, urine calcium excretion was reduced by 169% on the lower dose and by 213% on the higher dose of KHCO3."

"In conclusion, supplementation with the lower dose of KHCO3, 1 mmol/kg/day or a median dose of 81 mmol/day, significantly improved intermediary indicators of bone health (lowered calcium excretion, NTX excretion, and serum P1NP levels) but had no significant effect on N excretion or measures of muscle strength or function in healthy older men and women. This dose was safe and well tolerated."

When I began taking this supplement years ago, for the first month I started with a daily dosage of 683 mg/day potassium from a packed level 1/4 US teaspoon (1.75 g) of potassium bicarbonate. I did not experience any adverse effects or signs of potassium toxicity (hyperkalemia) as I gradually increased the daily dosage.

I usually take 2734 mg/day potassium from a packed level 1 US teaspoon of potassium bicarbonate powder (7.0 g KHCO3), in water drank throughout the day — never all at once. For me this is approximately 0.9 mmol/kg/day KHCO3, as a male with body weight around 180 lbs (81.6 kg).

7.0 g/day KHCO3 ÷ (100.11514 g/mol molar mass of KHCO3 × 0.001 mol/mmol × 81.6 kg body weight) = 0.9 mmol/kg/day KHCO3

To measure potassium bicarbonate powder, I used a set of high-quality US measuring spoons. The powder was packed into the spoon and leveled off. I observed the following approximate measurements on my Weighmax CT20 milligram scale.

(Packed Leveled)
1/8 US teaspoon 342 mg 0.875 g
1/4 US teaspoon 683 mg 1.75 g
1/2 US teaspoon 1367 mg 3.5 g
1 US teaspoon 2734 mg 7.0 g

Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)

Benefits | Toxins & Radiation | Infections | Diabetes | Cancer | Formulations | Dosage | Safety

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is much more than a micronutrient needed in minute quantities. Humans are among the few known species unable to internally synthesize ascorbic acid because of a mutation in the gene encoding for a required liver enzyme.

Many animals make this in significant amounts to maintain health. For example, a 150 lb (68 kg) goat produces an estimated 13 g/day ascorbic acid when healthy and up to 100 g/day during illness. Farmers have found that feeding their sick animals high doses of ascorbic acid powder can greatly assist in recovery.

After Albert Szent-Györgyi isolated ascorbic acid in 1928, Irwin Stone patented its use as a food preservative and wrote the following book to present his findings. In 1966 he introduced high-dose vitamin C to Linus Pauling, who increased public awareness of the benefits through his research and publications.

Excerpt from Irwin Stone, PhD. The Healing Factor: Vitamin C Against Disease. 1972. Vitamin C Foundation free reprint. archive.org PDF.

After 40 years research, Irwin Stone unfolds his startling conclusion that an ancient genetic mutation has left the primate virtually alone among animals in not producing ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) in his own body. By treating it as a "minimum daily requirement" instead of the crucial enzyme it really is, we are living in a state of sub-clinical scurvy whose symptoms have been attributed to other ailments. The answer is to change our thinking about Vitamin C and consume enough to replenish this long-lost "healing factor." Stone illustrates, with massive documentation, Vitamin C's remarkable ability to fight disease, counteract the ill effects of pollution and prolong healthy life — easily and inexpensively!

Andrew W. Saul is a prolific author with 40+ years experience in natural health education. He is founder and editor-in-chief of Orthomolecular Medicine News Service which began in 2005 and has related information, including a four-decade archive of the Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine with Dr. Abram Hoffer as founder and editor-in-chief.

Excerpt from Steve Hickey, PhD., Andrew W. Saul, PhD. Vitamin C: The Real Story (1st ed., foreword). Basic Health 2015.

Vitamin C is very safe. It has always puzzled me why the medical profession was so eager to invent so many toxic properties when vitamin C does not have any. False factoids are prevalent, and the profession still considers these myths to be truth—something that could change with an examination of this book. For example, vitamin C does not cause kidney stones or pernicious anemia, and it does not make women sterile. Vitamin C did not shorten Linus Pauling’s life, as Victor Herbert claimed. Dr. Pauling lived eighteen years longer taking vitamin C than Dr. Herbert did without it. Dr. Stone stated over and over that vitamin C should be classified as an important nutrient that we need in quantity and cannot make, and not as a vitamin. If you want to be really healthy, you should take enough vitamin C. After reading this book, you will know why and how much. I am ninety years old and I have been taking vitamin C for over fifty years, and I plan to stay on it forevermore. It has also been very good for my patients but not so good for my practice—my patients get well too fast.
—Abram Hoffer, M.D., Ph.D.

Dr. Thomas E. Levy wrote the comprehensive book "Curing the Incurable: Vitamin C, Infectious Diseases, and Toxins" especially for his medical colleagues, with 1278 scientific references on how high-dose vitamin C has been successfully used for a wide variety of medical conditions. He also wrote the book "Primal Panacea" to summarize his research in an easy-to-read, entertaining format for the general public.

Excerpt from Thomas E. Levy, MD, JD. Primal Panacea (1st ed., p. 15). MedFox 2011.

After over 15 years of research and personal observation, I can categorically say that high-dose vitamin C is a clinical miracle when compared to all of our modern drugs. Furthermore, volumes of studies exist that say it works. It’s one of the safest substances known to man — we have yet to discover a toxic dose for vitamin C, a bit of a miracle itself. Even when hundreds of grams have been administered within a few days, the only side effect is good health. Its cost is microscopic compared to the cost of most prescription drugs and therapies. Many of the diseases and conditions that vitamin C has been shown to cure remain "incurable" with conventional medications.


Free radicals cause oxidative stress which damages cells, over time contributing to aging and development of disease. Natural compounds with antioxidant properties can protect against this. Vitamin C is an effective water-soluble antioxidant predominant in blood, intracellular fluids, and tissues. It is also used to recycle other antioxidants such as glutathione and vitamin E.

Vitamin C is an important enzyme cofactor for neurotransmitters, hormones, and collagen — one of the main structural components of blood vessels, bone, cartilage, eye lens, heart valves, ligaments, skin, and tendons.

Studies and physician reports referenced in the mentioned publications indicate that high-dose vitamin C is potentially beneficial for:

On a personal note, after taking high-dose vitamin C for several months, my vision at close distances noticeably improved.

Toxins and Radiation

High-dose vitamin C has been shown to reduce effects of air pollution, alcohol and food poisoning, chemical exposure, drug toxicity and withdrawal, heavy metals, pesticides, radiation, and venom.

Excerpt from Thomas E. Levy, MD, JD. Curing the Incurable: Vitamin C, Infectious Diseases, and Toxins (4th ed., p. 168). MedFox 2011.

Vitamin C has demonstrated the ability to neutralize a wide variety of toxic substances, many of which are completely unrelated chemically. Frequently, vitamin C directly interacts chemically with a given toxin to render it less toxic or nontoxic. This is known as a chemical antidote effect. However, vitamin C can also act as a physiological antidote to a toxin or poison. Such an antidote effect can result when vitamin C helps to undo or repair the damage caused by a certain toxin without having to directly interact with the toxin (Nowak et al., 2000). In Chapter 2 it has already been demonstrated that vitamin C is superbly effective in either neutralizing or negating the effects of a number of chemically different and extremely potent endotoxins and exotoxins, which are produced as by-products of microbial growth.

Lead is a toxic heavy metal. Elevated lead levels in the body are common and associated with significantly increased risk of disease and mortality. High-dose vitamin C and crushed raw garlic can assist the body in reducing lead levels.

Studies in Japan found that high-dose vitamin C helped protect Fukushima nuclear plant workers exposed to radiation during the cleanup.


Vitamin C when taken in frequent high doses may reduce cold and flu symptoms. For example, "Orthomolecular Medicine for Everyone: Megavitamin Therapeutics for Families and Physicians" (1st ed., p. 85. Abram Hoffer, MD, PhD., Andrew W. Saul, PhD. Basic Health 2008) described a study where 252 people took 3 g/day vitamin C when healthy and 1 g/hour for six hours at onset of symptoms, which decreased by 85% compared to the control group of 463 people.

Dr. Suzanne Humphries wrote a guide about high-dose vitamin C for infants and children with whooping cough. She noted, "I've received hundreds of letters of appreciation telling me how the protocol worked for parents using it on their own."

Studies have shown intravenous (IV) vitamin C to lower mortality for hospitalized patients with life-threatening conditions such as sepsis or tetanus. It has also been used throughout the world to significantly reduce mortality from viral infection. In China it proved so effective that 50,000 kg of vitamin C was sent to the epicenter of an epidemic in Wuhan to assist in recovery.

I came across numerous reports on the use of high-dose vitamin C during remarkable healing from infection. For example, the book "Primal Panacea" (1st ed., pp. 14-21. Thomas E. Levy, MD, JD. MedFox 2011) described how physicians recommended removing life support from a swine flu patient who had been comatose for the prior month. With assistance of family, the patient then began receiving high-dose IV vitamin C and fully recovered.

The book also mentioned a patient who was hospitalized for several weeks with bone infection of the hand. It became so severe that physicians recommended amputation to save his life. Instead the patient then began high-dose oral and IV vitamin C. His hand quickly healed, with the infection and swelling gone after nine days.

The book "Vitamin C: The Real Story" (1st ed., p. 117. Steve Hickey, PhD., Andrew W. Saul, PhD. Basic Health 2015) described how a man successfully used up to 250 g/day oral vitamin C when he began to develop Legionnaires’ disease as confirmed by lab testing. He had recently stayed at a hotel where three other people caught the same disease and died within a few days at different hospitals.


Two studies from Deakin University in Australia found that vitamin C supplementation improved insulin sensitivity in people with type 2 diabetes. They took 500 mg ascorbic acid twice daily for four months. Reported benefits included a 36% drop in blood sugar spike after meals, nearly three hours per day less hyperglycaemia, and 50% reduction in hypertension.

Associate Professor Glenn Wadley noted, "Vitamin C's antioxidant properties can help counteract the high levels of free radicals found in people with diabetes, and it's encouraging to see this benefits a number of the disease's common comorbidities, such as high blood pressure."


Physicians have used high-concentration vitamin C applied topically for various skin conditions, including the removal of basal cell carcinoma.

Steve Hickey and other researchers have described evidence that high-dose oral and IV vitamin C can generate hydrogen peroxide inside cancer cells to destroy them, while leaving healthy cells unharmed. Taking frequent high oral doses of both ascorbic acid powder and liposomal vitamin C provides much higher blood levels against cancer, and can be even more effective when combined with synergistic redox agents such as supplemental alpha-lipoic acid and selenium.

An Interview with Abram Hoffer (Andrew W. Saul, PhD. J. Orthomol. Med. 2009;24(3):1) mentioned that Dr. Abram Hoffer used high-dose oral vitamin C with 1600+ cancer patients. At least 40% reached 10 year cure rates. In "Orthomolecular Treatment of Chronic Disease: 65 Experts on Therapeutic and Preventive Nutrition" (1st ed., p. 238. Andrew W. Saul, PhD. Basic Health 2014), Dr. Hoffer described using 40 g/day oral vitamin C with a pancreatic cancer patient that other physicians considered terminal and untreatable. The patient made a full recovery and lived another 20 years.

Dr. Hugh Riordan was the first to demonstrate that high-dose IV vitamin C is chemotherapeutic for cancer patients. He founded the Riordan Clinic which specializes in functional and integrative medicine.

Dr. Raymond CF Yuen in Singapore has done research on the clinical application of high-dose IV vitamin C (HDIVC) for cancer immunotherapy. He noted, "In the ten years that I have been administering HDIVC for cancer patients, I have always found it effective in improving patients' quality of life and survival. I have seen stage 4 cancer patients who were given a poor prognosis survive longer than their oncologists' prediction or expectation."

Dr. Joseph Breslin in New Mexico successfully treated cancer patients with 120 to 180 g/day IV vitamin C in a continuous drip from a chemotherapy pump and catheter.


Ascorbic acid is the type of vitamin C that animals internally synthesize. It has two extra electrons per molecule to donate to oxidized free radicals and neutralize their harmful effects in the body. Studies find that small amounts of plant pigments (flavonoids) in vitamin C products marketed as "natural" are not significant and not more effective than pure ascorbic acid.

Mineral ascorbates are another type of vitamin C. Calcium ascorbate (Ester-C) contains 10% calcium, and sodium ascorbate contains 13% sodium. Excessive amounts of these minerals may not be appropriate when taken orally in high dosage. Mineral ascorbates are less potent as an antioxidant since they only have one extra electron per molecule to donate.

Ascorbyl palmitate contains 42.5% vitamin C and is not more bioavailable than pure ascorbic acid. When taken orally, the small intestine releases the ascorbic acid molecule that is bound to the ester.

Powder can be economical for high dosage, with no added fillers found in tablets. Powder readily dissolves in water and use of a straw can keep it off teeth. It's best to consume a vitamin C solution before it eventually turns yellow-brown due to oxidation from exposure to air, heat, or light. Refridgeration will slow that process. Studies find that slow timed-release capsules are not more efficient in increasing vitamin C levels, compared to other supplement forms.

To measure ascorbic acid powder, I used a set of high-quality US measuring spoons and observed the following approximate measurements on my Weighmax CT20 milligram scale. The range depended on whether the powder was lightly scooped or firmly packed down into the spoon, before being leveled off.

Spoon Vitamin C
Ascorbic Acid
1/8 US teaspoon 625-688 mg
1/4 US teaspoon 1250-1375 mg
1/2 US teaspoon 2500-2750 mg
1 US teaspoon 5000-5500 mg
1/2 US tablespoon 7500-8250 mg
1 US tablespoon 15,000-16,500 mg

Most forms of supplemental oral vitamin C require active transport in the bowel for absorption. Liposomal vitamin C is a less common, more expensive form absorbed by a different mechanism in gut cells. A liposome has a spherical phospholipid bilayer, with an internal cavity capable of carrying liquid vitamin C such as ascorbic acid or sodium ascorbate. Absorption can be up to 90% of a high oral dose, depending on how the liposome encapsulation is formulated.

In two interview articles, Dr. Thomas E. Levy indicated that use of liposomal vitamin C during viral infection can quickly load vitamin C into immune cells in the lymphatics of the gut. He personally noted that when using liposomal vitamin C, "I ended up overcoming a severe cold/flu more quickly than I ever had before, even when I had access to multiple 50- to 100-gram infusions of vitamin C intravenously." After receiving similar feedback from patients and healthcare practitioners, he became a consultant to LivOn Laboratories. He mentioned that many other brands advertising liposomes do not contain such.


In April 2000 the US Institute of Medicine published a Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of 75-90 mg/day vitamin C for adults to prevent scurvy, a life-threatening illness that quickly results from severe deficiency. The RDA for vitamin C was not intended for prevention of chronic diseases. Based on case reports, they published a Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) of 2 g/day vitamin C for which almost no adults in the population will experience loose stools. The RDA and UL are well below the levels suggested by physicians and researchers experienced with the use of high-dose vitamin C for optimal health and healing.

In the early 1940s, medical pioneer Dr. Frederick Klenner began reporting on the successful use of high-dose oral and injected vitamin C for a wide variety of conditions. During a 1948 epidemic, all 60 of his polio patients had no residual damage from the acute viral disease known to produce permanent deformities. He noted, "I have never seen a patient that Vitamin C would not benefit." For healthy adults, he suggested at least 10 g/day ascorbic acid in divided doses. For healthy children, he suggested 1 g/day for each year of age, leveling off at 10 g/day when the child is 10 years old. Dr. Klenner personally took 10-20 g/day vitamin C when healthy.

Beginning in 1969, Dr. Robert F. Cathcart III used high-dose vitamin C to help over 30,000 patients throughout his career. He found ascorbic acid to be the most effective type of oral vitamin C. In a 26-minute presentation he described various therapeutic uses, including how it eliminated his chronic allergies and greatly reduced his frequent colds. He mentioned personally taking 16 g/day ascorbic acid when healthy.

Dr. Cathcart observed that at least 80% of healthy adults can tolerate 10-15 g/day ascorbic acid powder dissolved in water in 4-6 divided doses. He wrote, "Bowel tolerance doses are the amounts of ascorbic acid tolerated orally that almost, but not quite, cause diarrhea." He reported that bowel tolerance can significantly increase depending on severity of illness, allowing a range of 15 to 200+ g/day to be used without diarrhea. To be effective in recovery, dosage needed to be near bowel tolerance and taken frequently until feeling completely well.

Dr. Cathcart described an example for acute illness, starting with 2-6 g ascorbic acid every 15 minutes, with amount increased until diarrhea, then continued at a slightly reduced amount that does not cause diarrhea. He indicated that as symptoms decrease, so can bowel tolerance with dosage reduced as needed. Reducing carbohydrate intake can also improve absorption of vitamin C during illness, along with drinking plenty of water.

For healthy adults, the half-life of high-dose vitamin C in the bloodstream is estimated to be 30 minutes. Use of divided doses spread throughout the day allows a higher percentage to be absorbed.

In "Curing the Incurable" (4th ed., p. 331. MedFox 2011), Dr. Thomas E. Levy suggested 6-12 g/day vitamin C in 3-4 divided doses for healthy adults, with the optimal dosage usually closer to 12 g than 6 g.

In "How To Live Longer and Feel Better" (1st ed., p. 8. Avon 1986), Linus Pauling suggested 6-18 g/day vitamin C for healthy adults. He personally took 18 g/day ascorbic acid when healthy.

In "Vitamin C: The Real Story" (1st ed., p. 62. Steve Hickey, PhD., Andrew W. Saul, PhD. Basic Health 2015), the authors suggested at least 2-3 g/day vitamin C in divided doses for healthy adults and that optimal intake is likely much higher at 50-90% of bowel tolerance. They advised occasional retesting since it may change with time. Steve Hickey indicated he took 9 g/day ascorbic acid when healthy. Andrew W. Saul said he took 18 g/day ascorbic acid.

I started with 2.5 g/day ascorbic acid powder in water drank throughout the day. Initially I experienced mild gastrointestinal discomfort which quickly resolved. Then I gradually increased the dosage as my body adapted to using higher amounts. I take 15 g/day ascorbic acid when healthy.


Vitamin C is a nontoxic, water-soluble substance that does not accumulate in the body. Since the 1940s physicians have reported a high degree of safety with the use of high-dose oral vitamin C. Potential side effects are temporary gastrointestinal disturbances which subside when the dosage is reduced.

There is no compelling, consistent data that indicate any serious adverse effects from high-dose oral vitamin C. No clinical trials have ever shown this to increase any risk factors in healthy people.

Physicians and researchers experienced with the use of high-dose vitamin C have confirmed that it does not cause B12 deficiency, birth defects, cataracts, DNA damage, infertility, kidney stones, low blood sugar, or miscarriage. The US Institute of Medicine reported "the in vivo data do not clearly show a causal relationship between excess vitamin C intake" and allergic response, excess iron absorption, kidney stone formation, pro-oxidant effects, reduced vitamin B12 and copper levels, systemic conditioning or rebound scurvy.

Observational studies are highly variable in quality of evidence provided, potential bias, and errors. Assuming a cause-and-effect relationship between two variables may be incorrect based on an observed association between them — correlation does not imply causation. For example, people with a medical condition may be found to more frequently take a nutritional supplement to improve their health, and that does not imply that the supplement caused the medical condition.

The following addressed an observational study that found an association between cataracts and supplemental vitamin C, with the incorrect implication that the vitamin C caused the cataracts.

Excerpt from Damien Downing, MBBS, MSB., Robert G. Smith, PhD. Cataracts and Vitamins: The Real Story. Orthomolecular Medicine News Service 2013.

Is it scientifically plausible?

No. The study contradicts many other studies that have shown either no effect or actual benefits of vitamin C and E for preventing cataracts and other eye diseases. Cataracts are common among older people, and it is well known that antioxidants can reduce the risk of developing them if taken long-term. Smoking, obesity, and diabetes are well-known risk factors for cataracts, and antioxidants are known to prevent the damage caused by these factors. [References below]. In one study, vitamin C supplements taken over 10 years or more reduced the risk of cataracts by about 80%. This is a huge dose-related effect, strongly suggesting the benefit of antioxidants in preventing cataracts. The effect was not apparent for short-term use, suggesting that any shorter-term study may not identify the benefit. (Jacques et al, 1997).

The article What Really Causes Kidney Stones (And Why Vitamin C Does Not) (Orthomolecular Medicine News Service 2013) addressed an observational study that found an association between kidney stones and supplemental vitamin C, with the incorrect implication that the vitamin C caused the kidney stones. Professor Emanuel Cheraskin stated, "Vitamin C in the urine tends to bind calcium and decrease its free form. This means less chance of calcium's separating out as calcium oxalate (stones)." Important factors in development of kidney stones are dehydration and high dietary intake of oxalate sources such as spinach, coffee, and tea.

The article Kidney stones caused by vitamin C? (PatrickHolford.com 2013) described a study at the Kidney Stone Research Laboratory at University of Cape Town. Unlike other erroneous studies, for this study they used collection containers with a preservative to keep urine from changing while being stored before testing. Ten subjects took 4 g/day oral vitamin C for five days and laboratory urinalysis found no increased risk factors. A world expert in this field, Professor Allen Rodgers indicated that kidney stones could not be caused by use of vitamin C.

A 1994 study published in The Journal of Urology had similar findings. The researchers tested subjects with a vitamin C dosage of up to 10 g/day for several days and concluded, "no genuine increase in urinary oxalate was demonstrable despite a greatly increased ascorbate intake."

This article discussed other related studies:

Excerpt from Steve Hickey, PhD., Hilary Roberts, PhD. VITAMIN C DOES NOT CAUSE KIDNEY STONES. Orthomolecular Medicine News Service 2005.

There is no evidence that vitamin C causes kidney stones. Indeed, in some cases, high doses may be curative. A recent, large-scale, prospective study followed 85,557 women for 14 years and found no evidence that vitamin C causes kidney stones. There was no difference in the occurrence of stones between people taking less than 250 milligrams per day and those taking 1.5 grams or more. This study was a follow up of an earlier study on 45,251 men. This earlier study indicated that doses of vitamin C above 1.5 grams reduce the risk of kidney stones. The authors of these large studies stated that restriction of higher doses of vitamin C because of the possibility of kidney stones is unwarranted.

Since the 1940s physicians have found that long-term use of supplemental vitamin C in large amounts does not cause kidney stones in healthy adults, and may even be protective (along with magnesium).

Toward the end of his career, Dr. Robert F. Cathcart III reported that he had put an estimated 25,000 patients on high-dose vitamin C and none developed kidney stones as a result. Two patients not using a high dosage developed kidney stones; he advised them to use a high dosage and they had no further problems.

The book "Ascorbate: The Science of Vitamin C" (1st ed., p. 95. Steve Hickey, PhD., Hilary Roberts, PhD. Lulu 2004) mentioned that throughout his career, Dr. Cathcart never saw high-dose vitamin C cause any adverse effects involving G6P6 deficiency, a rare genetic mutation in people of African or Middle Eastern descent. He treated two patients with hemochromatosis and both were able to safely use high-dose vitamin C with no adverse effects. Hemochromatosis is excess accumulation of iron in the body, usually caused by an inherited condition.

Vitamin D

Vitamin D is important for cardiovascular, endocrine, immune, and skeletal systems. Studies indicate that supplemental vitamin D can help reduce susceptibility or severity of asthma, arthritis, breast and colorectal cancer, depression, diabetes, gout, heart attack, influenza, kidney stone, obesity, and thyroid problem.

GrassrootsHealth has been actively involved for many years in research about vitamin D. They offer helpful information and the opportunity to participate in their research projects using a home blood spot test, which is mailed in for them to provide the results.

According to studies by their panel of 48 vitamin D researchers, a serum 25(OH)D concentration of 40 ng/mL (100 nmol/L) is the lower edge of optimal, with 60-80 ng/ml (150-200 nmol/L) considered ideal for health and disease prevention.

Excerpt from GrassrootsHealth. Is Taking More than 4,000 IU Vitamin D Per Day Too Much? GrassrootsHealth.net 2018.

In conclusion, it is important to remember that the appropriate measure for the vitamin D requirement is not intake, but achieved serum level. The requirement that the recommendations for any nutrient must be based on intake does not incorporate research now available showing the wide variation in response to intake, and misses the key point of achieving the appropriate measure to help people be healthy and prevent disease.

Numerous studies support the use of vitamin D for viral infection.

Excerpt from GrassrootsHealth. Higher Chance of Being Hospitalized with COVID-19 if Vitamin D Deficient. GrassrootsHealth.net 2020.

The evidence connecting vitamin D and COVID-19 disease and severity is overwhelming. Studies have been published concluding that higher vitamin D levels are associated with more positive outcomes, from a decreased risk of testing positive to COVID-19 to a decreased risk of severity and death. In our last post, we shared a short video showing that 70-80% of COVID-19 patients with low vitamin D required admission to the ICU.

Studies have shown that magnesium and dietary fat may both help increase the effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation.

To measure cholecalciferol vitamin D3 (100,000 IU/gram) powder, I used "Norpro mini stainless steel measuring spoons, set of 5 (TAD, DASH, PINCH, SMIDGEN and DROP)" along with a set of high-quality US measuring spoons. The powder was packed into the spoon and leveled off. I observed the following approximate measurements on my Weighmax CT20 milligram scale.

(Packed Leveled)
Vitamin D3 Powder
DROP 3500 IU 35 mg
SMIDGEN 7000 IU 70 mg
PINCH 18,000 IU 180 mg
DASH 27,000 IU 270 mg
1/8 US teaspoon 42,500 IU 425 mg
TAD 70,000 IU 700 mg
1/4 US teaspoon 85,000 IU 850 mg

Vitamin E

I read that the natural form of vitamin E (d-alpha tocopherol plus mixed tocopherols) derived from vegetable oil is far more effective than the synthetic form (dl-alpha tocopheryl) made from coal tar.

Vitamin E is an antioxidant important for cardiovascular health, cellular repair, immune system, and vision. Studies indicate that high-dose vitamin E may help reduce overall mortality in elderly and prevent ALS, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, heart attack, and lung cancer. Also reported are potential benefit for Alzheimer's disease, atherosclerosis, epileptic seizures in children, fatty liver disease, and prostate cancer.

Excerpt from Orthomolecular Medicine News Service. Vitamin E: Safe, Effective, and Heart-Healthy. 2005.

Pioneer vitamin E researchers and clinicians Drs. Wilfrid and Evan Shute treated some 30,000 patients over several decades and found that people in average health received maximum benefit from 800 IU of the d-alpha tocopherol form of vitamin E. Vitamin E has been proven effective in the prevention and treatment of many heart conditions. "The complete or nearly complete prevention of angina attacks is the usual and expected result of treatment with alpha tocopherol" according to Wilfrid Shute, M. D., a cardiologist. Shute prescribed up to 1,600 IU of vitamin E daily and successfully treated patients for acute coronary thrombosis, acute rheumatic fever, chronic rheumatic heart disease, hypertensive heart disease, diabetes mellitus, acute and chronic nephritis, and even burns, plastic surgery and mazoplasia.


Studies find that zinc is important for immune system, insulin function, neurotransmission, regulation of gene expression, reproduction, and vision. Deficiency is common among some populations. Vegetarians may require as much as 50% more of the RDA for zinc than non-vegetarians. Phytates in whole grains and legumes can bind zinc reducing absorption.

I consume copper in sufficient amounts from foods and stay below the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) of 40 mg/day zinc, determined unlikely to cause any adverse effects for healthy adults in long-term use. Studies indicate that 50-180 mg/day zinc for 1-2 weeks has not resulted in serious side effects, but that dosage long term may result in copper deficiency unless copper is also supplemented.

In 2009 the European Food Safety Authority published the scientific opinion of 21 panel members on the use of zinc picolinate as a supplement.

Excerpt from F. Aguilar, U.R. Charrondiere, et al. Chromium picolinate, zinc picolinate and zinc picolinate dihydrate added for nutritional purposes in food supplements. The EFSA Journal 2009;1113:1-41.

The majority of studies reveal a slightly greater bioavailability of zinc from zinc picolinate than from other zinc compounds, although some studies showed similar levels of absorption, and a few investigators claim a somewhat lower absorption of zinc from zinc picolinate than from other zinc compounds.

Based on the available, albeit limited toxicological database, the Panel concluded that at the anticipated use and use levels of zinc picolinate and zinc picolinate dihydrate, as a source of zinc, when added for nutritional purposes in food supplements, are not of safety concern as long as the UL for zinc is not exceeded.

To measure zinc picolinate 20% powder, I used "Norpro mini stainless steel measuring spoons, set of 5 (TAD, DASH, PINCH, SMIDGEN and DROP)" along with a set of high-quality US measuring spoons. The powder was packed into the spoon and leveled off. I observed the following approximate measurements on my Weighmax CT20 milligram scale.

(Packed Leveled)
DROP 10 mg 50 mg
SMIDGEN 20 mg 100 mg
PINCH 48 mg 240 mg
DASH 80 mg 400 mg
1/8 US teaspoon 120 mg 600 mg
TAD 200 mg 1000 mg

Viral Infection

I read physicians mention short-term use of the following by adults during viral infection. I used these briefly at onset of symptoms which quickly resolved.

I consider high-dose vitamin C and nebulization of 3% hydrogen peroxide (HP) to be among the most important. Dr. Thomas E. Levy gave both high priority in his free e-book Rapid Virus Recovery (MedFox 2021) and article (Orthomolecular.org 2021) about virus treatment options. He also mentioned two medications hydroxychloroquine with zinc and ivermectin which I have not used.

Ionic Nanoparticle Silver (Nanosilver)

I read physicians mention ionic nanoparticle silver for short-term use during viral infection, up to 6 US teaspoons/day nebulized or swallowed. They indicated this may also be beneficial when applied topically against wound infection, or taken internally during other types of infection.

Ionic nanoparticle silver should not be confused with colloidal silver, which is a different form considered outdated and far less effective due to its much larger particles. Ionic nanoparticle silver does not cause argyria, a discoloration of skin known to occur from excessive use of colloidal silver.

Studies on ionic nanoparticle silver have found antimicrobial properties:

Excerpt from Herbert Slavin, MD. Ionic Silver – The Powerful Defense Against Viruses And Other Microbes. Health Freedom News 2006;24(3):22.

In Europe, ionic silver is recognized as an accepted treatment for viral conditions. Walk into a pharmacy in Europe and tell them you've been diagnosed with a cold or flu — which is viral in nature — and they will look in their desk reference and find a number of silver-ion compounds or complexes listed as remedies to sell you. It seems the United States is finally catching on. A study at the University of Arizona recently showed ionic silver to be effective against the coronavirus that researchers use as the surrogate for SARS. A study out of the University of Texas reportedly suggested ionic silver may be effective against HIV-1, and researchers expect it may be shown effective against other viruses and bacteria as well. "We're testing against other viruses and the 'super bug (Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus),' said Miguel Jose Yacaman, from University of Texas, Department of Engineering and one of the study's authors. “Our preliminary results indicate that silver nanoparticles can effectively attack other micro-organisms."

Excerpt from S Galdiero, A Falanga, et al. Silver nanoparticles as potential antiviral agents. Molecules 2011;16(10):8894‐8918.

Metal nanoparticles, especially the ones produced with silver or gold, have proven to exhibit virucidal activity against a broad-spectrum of viruses, and surely to reduce viral infectivity of cultured cells. In most cases, a direct interaction between the nanoparticle and the virus surface proteins could be demonstrated or hypothesized.

Excerpt from Xiaonan Lv, Peng Wang, et al. Inhibitory effect of silver nanomaterials on transmissible virus-induced host cell infections. Biomaterials 2014;35(13).

The antiviral use of metal nanomaterials had been developed by interfering with viral infection during attachment and entry. A direct interaction between the nanomaterials and the virus surface proteins could be demonstrated as the antiviral mechanism of silver nanomaterials. Our findings shed new light on the potential antiviral activity of silver nanomaterials against coronaviruses and provide new insights into the mechanisms by which silver nanomaterials inhibit cell apoptosis induced by TGEV infection.

Dr. Carolyn Dean has provided two free reports about ionic nanoparticle silver, which her product "Pico Silver" contains.

Excerpts from Carolyn Dean, MD, ND. Pico Silver: Clearing Up the Controversy. DrCarolynDeanLive.com 2018.

"People who take colloidal silver or silver ions are doing so to support their immune system so, it’s great news to learn that silver ions kill virus, bacteria, and fungal organisms. One research team studied silver ions and found that many types of bacteria, viruses, and fungi succumb, including the microbes that cause strep throat, pneumonia, diphtheria, gonorrhea, herpes, the flu, bronchitis, tuberculosis, and inflammatory conditions of the eyes, ears, nose, and throat."

1. Colds, sore throat, flus: You can take up to 1 tsp every 2 hours while awake for a total of 6 tsp. You can swish and swallow straight Pico Silver or put in 2 ounces of water and swish, gargle and swallow.
2. Cough, Pneumonia: One teaspoon in a nebulizer and inhale for 10 minutes; repeat several times per day."

Excerpts from Jim Mackay. A Feasibility Study of Silver Dihydrogen Citrate For Use as a Nutritional Supplement. DrCarolynDeanLive.com 2007.

"Nanosilver is about 40 times more effective than colloidal silver compounds."

"Nanosilver has a very high therapeutic value because there is no known LD50 for nanosilver, and there is only one known deleterious side effect — argyria — and the only known side effect does not apply to nanosilver speciation, but only to colloidal silver compounds, especially silver salts. The effective dose, on the other hand, is very low when compared to a strictly theoretical lethal dose."

"Nano/picoscalar silver was tested against silver sulfadiazine and found to be 10-100 times more lethal against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens. Its efficacy was largely due to its surface area coverage, which was estimated to approach six square kilometers per cubic centimeter of product."

"Metal chelators (such as nanosilver) have been shown to form metal-linked dimers (two molecules linked together). By chelation (which is a process similar to the way in which silver is absorbed out of the soil by plants) to the proteins and glycoproteins, nanosilver intervenes in the virus’ life cycle, interrupting the ability of the virus to replicate."

"The most effective administration of the nanosilver into the body in the specific case of SARS (an URTI disease) would be to nebulize, or atomize, or vaporize, the SDC through a mechanical device, whereby the patient could breathe the nanosilver directly into the lungs. The sub-micron particles would then penetrate the viral envelope."

In spring 2020 I purchased "Silver Doc Silver Hydrosol by Research Labs 32 oz" which was competitively priced, made in a certified Utah lab, and had an established reputable history. One US teaspoon of this 0.8 nanometer (0.008 micron) 20 ppm ionic nanoparticle silver solution contains 0.1 mg of elemental silver. Plain drinking water can contain up to 0.1 mg of elemental silver per liter and be within U.S. EPA safety guidelines.

N-acetylcysteine (NAC)

I read that N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has long been used for a wide variety of purposes and is considered likely safe for most adults. In May 2020 Dr. Roger Seheult described in an interesting video, "there is compelling research that NAC may also reduce the severity of viral infections like influenza, and perhaps reduce the risk of blood clots (thromboembolism) as well." He mentioned this study:

Excerpt from S De Flora, C Grassi, L Carati. Attenuation of influenza-like symptomatology and improvement of cell-mediated immunity with long-term N-acetylcysteine treatment. European Respiratory Journal 1997;10(7):1535-1541.

N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an analogue and precursor of reduced glutathione, has been in clinical use for more than 30 yrs as a mucolytic drug. It has also been proposed for and/or used in the therapy and/or prevention of several respiratory diseases and of diseases involving an oxidative stress, in general. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of long-term treatment with NAC on influenza and influenza-like episodes. A total of 262 subjects of both sexes (78% > or = 65 yrs, and 62% suffering from nonrespiratory chronic degenerative diseases) were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind trial involving 20 Italian Centres. They were randomized to receive either placebo or NAC tablets (600 mg) twice daily for 6 months. Patients suffering from chronic respiratory diseases were not eligible, to avoid possible confounding by an effect of NAC on respiratory symptoms. NAC treatment was well tolerated and resulted in a significant decrease in the frequency of influenza-like episodes, severity, and length of time confined to bed. Both local and systemic symptoms were sharply and significantly reduced in the NAC group.

In 2021 related studies are being done, and reports have described evidence that NAC may benefit against viral infection. For example:

Excerpt from Zhongcheng Shi, MD., Carlos A. Puyo, MD. N-Acetylcysteine to Combat COVID-19: An Evidence Review. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2020;16:1047–1055.

To protect those who have not contracted SARS-Cov-2, oral NAC (600 mg, bid) could be an effective and economical measurement to modulate their immune systems against potential infection. Once onset symptoms appear, such as fever or dry cough, oral NAC (1200 mg, bid) could be taken to alleviate symptoms and accelerate recovery from virus infection.

For relatively severe patients without airway obstructions, an inhalable formula of NAC can be used with a nebulizer. Patients with allergies or asthma should take antihistamine before or during NAC inhalation, to prevent adverse reactions. Self-treatment with oral or inhalable NAC could help many SARS-Cov-2 infected patients safely recover at home.

To measure PureBulk.com N-acetylcysteine (NAC) powder, I used a set of high-quality US measuring spoons. The powder was packed into the spoon and leveled off. I observed the following approximate measurements on my Weighmax CT20 milligram scale.

(Packed Leveled)
(NAC) Powder
1/8 US teaspoon 600 mg
1/4 US teaspoon 1200 mg
1/2 US teaspoon 2400 mg

Nebulization of 3% Hydrogen Peroxide

A compressor and nebulizer are designed to convert liquid into aerosol breathed in through a mouthpiece or mask. Dr. Richard Cheng included this therapy in his regimen for patients. He published the following from Dr. Thomas E. Levy:

Excerpt from Thomas E. Levy, MD, JD. Hydrogen Peroxide, a potent anti-viral agent. DrWlC.com 2020.

There are few molecules in the body, if any, that are singularly more important for optimal health than hydrogen peroxide (HP). It is essential for the ongoing defense against pathogens while also playing a pivotal role in the regulation of normal metabolism. HP is present throughout the body, continually generated both inside and outside of all cells (Boveris and Chance, 1973; Bao et al., 2009; Rice, 2011). HP is literally a naturally-generated antibiotic "designed by nature" to give the body its best chance at preventing an infection or at resolving an infection once contracted. It is also intimately involved in vital messaging and signaling functions between different cells as well as inside the cells themselves in order to sustain normal metabolic function. Furthermore, HP is present in the body in significant amounts, with some data indicating that as much as 5% of oxygen intake is utilized in the generation of HP (Arnaiz et al., 1999). An extremely simple molecule, HP presents no toxicity to the body except when arbitrarily administered in very high doses and concentrations, conditions that can literally make any substance toxic.

Nebulization with HP is truly an ideal therapy for dealing with a number of conditions, but especially acute respiratory viral infections. This therapy has five characteristics that no other treatments fully share, although there are a number of therapies that have two or three of these characteristics. Such an ideal therapy is:

Highly effective clinically
Completely nontoxic when used as recommended
Inexpensive, but optimally of inconsequential cost to even the poorest of patients
Readily available, and not requiring prescription
Very easy to administer and not requiring assistance.

Dr. Levy also wrote this related article:

Excerpt from Thomas E. Levy, MD, JD. Curing Viruses with Hydrogen Peroxide: Can a simple therapy stop the pandemic? Orthomolecular Medicine News Service 2020.

Regular off-the shelf 3% HP can be utilized. Preparations of greater pharmacological purity can be obtained if desired (food grade). Food grade HP typically comes in concentrations greater than 3% and must be appropriately diluted. HP in a concentration greater than 3% should never be nebulized.

For most adults, the 3% concentration can be utilized in the nebulization chamber undiluted. This optimizes the degree and rapidity of the antiviral and anti-pathogen effect. However, don't be reluctant to dilute the 3% solution if not easily tolerated. Note that the first few partial inhalations might not be well-tolerated, but these initial inhalations effectively "coat" the mucous membranes with the HP mist, and subsequent inhalations are not only well-tolerated but relaxing. However, never continue inhaling any agent that makes breathing more difficult.

When a runny nose or slightly sore throat is already present, it is recommended that 5- to 15-minute nebulization sessions be undertaken several times daily or until a symptomatic relief is realized. Many individuals report significant improvement only a few hours after the first one or two treatments. However, it would be advisable to persist in these treatments several times daily for at least 24 to 48 hours after you feel everything is completely normal in your sinuses, nose, and throat to assure a complete resolution of the infection.

For some, the 3% concentration results in too much stinging/burning in the nose or soreness in the throat. Such individuals can dilute with water until they find their highest comfortable concentration. Anybody can tolerate a low enough dilution of the HP solution with water. Additional water can always be added until the nebulization is completely comfortable. Lower HP concentrations can be utilized with clearly beneficial effect, but a positive clinical response can be expected to occur more rapidly with the higher concentrations.

Dr. Levy published a free e-book Rapid Virus Recovery (MedFox 2021) about hydrogen peroxide and other therapies. During an interview about this with Dr. Joseph Mercola in April 2021, Dr. Levy mentioned that swallowing pathogens may impact health of gut, and patients with chronic irritable bowel syndrome have been helped by nebulization of hydrogen peroxide. Both physicians have personally used this at onset of respiratory symptoms to keep themselves healthy. Dr. Levy used 3% hydrogen peroxide and Dr. Mercola used a dilution with normal saline.

In May 2021 Dr. Levy reported that nebulization longer than 15 minutes can offer additional benefit and 3% hydrogen peroxide is optimal in most cases. He described successful use in Colombia by 20 people with viral infection, most significantly ill and some with severe respiratory difficulty. They nebulized pharmacy over-the-counter 3% hydrogen peroxide for 30 minutes, 3 times/day for five days. After the first two days, all felt much better. After five days, all had recovered.

In spring 2020 I read about a variety of models and determined that the "PARI Vios LC Plus" had a reputation for reliability, efficiency, moderate noise level, and customer support with 5 year warranty. I purchased this model (PP310F83LCPLUS) from BuyMedical.com with 30 day return policy and no prescription required. I bought extra "PARI LC Plus reusable nebulizer cup with wingtip tubing" from DirectHomeMedical.com. The compressor and nebulizers work quite well.

I nebulized 3% hydrogen peroxide short term at onset of viral infection symptoms which quickly resolved. I breathed in deeply through the mouthpiece and slowly exhaled through the nose to use my entire airway. I found this to be easily tolerated.


Quercetin is a flavonoid found in fruits and vegetables, with antioxidant properties that can protect cells from free radical damage. Dr. Thomas E. Levy mentioned quercetin in an article about virus treatment options. Studies indicate that quercetin has antiviral capability, which may be enhanced with the use of vitamin C to help the body recycle oxidized quercetin.

Excerpt from R.M.L. Colunga Biancatelli, Max Berrill, et al. Quercetin and Vitamin C: An Experimental, Synergistic Therapy for the Prevention and Treatment of SARS-CoV-2 Related Disease (COVID-19). Frontiers in Immunology 2020;11:1451.

Quercetin displays a broad range of antiviral properties which can interfere at multiple steps of pathogen virulence — virus entry, virus replication, protein assembly — and that these therapeutic effects can be augmented by the co-administration of vitamin C. Furthermore, due to their lack of severe side effects and low-costs, we strongly suggest the combined administration of these two compounds for both the prophylaxis and the early treatment of respiratory tract infections, especially including COVID-19 patients.

I read that a typical long-term prophylactic dosage considered likely safe for healthy adults is 500-1000 mg/day quercetin. The following mentioned a high dosage of 3000-5000 mg/day quercetin for short-term use during viral infection.

Excerpt from Jane M. Orient, MD., Elizabeth Lee Vliet, MD., et al. A Guide to Home-Based COVID Treatment. The Association of American Physicians and Surgeons 2021.

A word about quercetin. Some physicians are recommending this supplement to reduce viral illnesses because quercetin acts as a zinc ionophore to improve zinc uptake into cells. It is much less potent than HCQ as a zinc transporter, and it does not reach high concentrations in lung cells that HCQ does. Quercetin may help reduce risk of viral illness if you are basically healthy. But it is not potent enough to replace HCQ for treatment of COVID once you have symptoms, and it does not adequately get into lung tissue unless you take massive doses (3-5 grams a day), which cause significant GI side effects such as diarrhea.

Dr. Michael Murray in his August 21, 2021 newsletter recommended 3000 mg/day quercetin in divided doses for at least 10 days during active respiratory infection symptoms, followed by a maintenance dosage of 250 mg twice daily. He noted, "[This] high dosage may not be necessary. But my dosage calculations are based upon likely tissue concentrations needed to exert the strongest antiviral effects. And given the safety of quercetin, there is no harm at this level."

To measure PureBulk.com quercetin dihydrate pure powder, I used a set of high-quality US measuring spoons. The powder was packed into the spoon and leveled off. I observed the following approximate measurements on my Weighmax CT20 milligram scale.

(Packed Leveled)
Quercetin Dihydrate
Pure Powder
1/8 US teaspoon 250 mg
1/4 US teaspoon 500 mg
1/2 US teaspoon 1000 mg
1 US teaspoon 2000 mg
1/2 US tablespoon 3000 mg

Skin Care

In the past from extensive sun exposure, I experienced noticeable hyperpigmentation on my face. Then I adopted the following approach and my skin looks much healthier.

For daily use I apply niacinamide and vitamin C, separately since they are best absorbed at different pH levels. I use fingers to spread these on my face with head tilted back and am careful to avoid my eyes. I store these in dropper bottles (AOZITA 12 pack 2 oz glass dropper bottle with 3 stainless steel funnels & 1 long glass dropper) in the refridgerator and shake before use. I use up the vitamin C solution before it eventually turns yellow-brown from oxidation.

20% Niacinamide Solution

Niacinamide (vitamin B3) in topical use can help fade pigmentation, prevent UV damage and skin cancer, reduce inflammation and redness, reduce skin sallowness (yellowing), reduce fine lines and wrinkles, reduce pore size and improve skin texture, regulate oil production to clear acne and reduce dryness, and strengthen the skin barrier.

I apply and leave on a small amount of a homemade solution of niacinamide (BulkSupplements.com vitamin B3 niacinamide powder 500 grams 1.1 lb) dissolved in purified water in a 2 oz dropper bottle. A packed level 2.75 US teaspoons powder 11.0 g in 3 US tablespoons water 44.4 g = 19.9% weight/weight.

20% Vitamin C Solution + Vitamin E

Studies find that topical vitamin C can brighten skin, fade dark spots, maintain skin barrier, reduce free-radical damage from sunlight, reduce inflammation, and regenerate vitamin E in skin.

I apply and leave on a small amount of a homemade solution of vitamin C (ascorbic acid powder) dissolved in purified water in a 2 oz dropper bottle. A packed level 2 US teaspoons powder 10.8 g in 3 US tablespoons water 44.4 g = 19.6% weight/weight.

I also apply vitamin E from an opened gel cap to reduce oxidation of vitamin C on skin from exposure to air, heat, and light. Together these vitamins have a synergistic effect as antioxidants.

3% Salicylic Acid in Grapeseed Oil

Salicylic acid has anti-inflammatory properties and can exfoliate skin to keep pores clear and reduce acne. Studies indicate that salicylic acid has a photoprotective effect and does not increase sensitivity to sunlight.

Grapeseed oil benefits include anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, proanthocyanidin to even out skin tone, and a synergistic effect with vitamin C and E to protect skin from UV damage.

I apply and leave on a small amount of a homemade solution of salicylic acid (Ebay.com seller "flea-market-store" salicylic acid powder) dissolved in grapeseed oil in a glass jar with lid. A packed level 1/4 US teaspoon powder 1.25 g in 3 US tablespoons oil 42 g = 2.9% weight/weight.

To make this, I heat two inches of water in a cooking pot until boiling and then turn off the heat. I remove my bottle of grapeseed oil stored in the refridgerator and add oil to the glass jar, along with salicylic acid powder. I place the glass jar into the cooking pot of hot water and stir until the powder is dissolved in the oil.

37% Glycolic Acid Solution for Chemical Peel

Caution: I read this may temporarily increase need for sun protection due to greater skin sensitivity to sunlight, and has potential to damage skin if used incorrectly.

Glycolic acid is an alpha-hydroxy acid (AHA) commonly used in skin care. I found these two publications to have helpful information about different types of chemical peels and safety precautions.

Excerpts from Teo Soleymani, MD., Julien Lanoue, MD., Zakia Rahman, MD. A Practical Approach to Chemical Peels. Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology 2018;11(8):21–28.

"The most popular and time-tested superficial peeling agent is glycolic acid, an AHA derived from sugar cane. It is the smallest and simplest AHA in terms of chemical structure, and is also a highly hydrophilic molecule with the greatest bioavailability of all the AHAs. When properly used, superficial exfoliation with glycolic acid at concentrations of 30 to 50% has demonstrated excellent clinical efficacy in the treatment of superficial hyperpigmentation, mild-to-moderate chrono- and photoaging, and fine rhytides. Glycolic acid is often considered the first-line choice of chemical peeling agents for treatment of melasma."

"Chemical peels are the third most commonly performed noninvasive cosmetic procedure in the United States, with over 1,300,000 procedures performed in 2016 alone. There has been a paradigm shift in recent years, with lasers largely supplanting deep peels. Despite this shift, superficial peels have proliferated in both popularity and product diversity.

When used for the appropriate indication and with proper technique, nearly all peeling agents have demonstrated excellent clinical efficacy and remain an indispensable cost-effective tool in the dermatologist’s aesthetic toolbox."

I occasionally do a superficial chemical peel with a small amount of a homemade solution of glycolic acid (CosChemSupply.com glycolic acid powder 99.5% crystal) dissolved in purified water in a 2 oz dropper bottle. A packed level 4 US teaspoons powder 17.6 g in 2 US tablespoons water 29.6 g = 37% weight/weight.

Red Light Therapy

Red light therapy, also known as photobiomodulation, may reduce inflammatory processes and hyperpigmentation photodamage from sun exposure. By stimulating mitochondria in skin cells that absorb red light particles, energy is increased for cellular repair, allowing the skin to more quickly return to normal pigmentation levels.

In June 2021 I read a variety of related information, including two articles about Red Light Man high-powered light devices for home and professional use. I purchased their Red Light Device Mini and have been using it regularly with good results.


OCT 2021 Add reports for lysine, quercetin, and high-dose IV vitamin C.

JUN 2021 Add red light therapy for skin care.

MAY 2021 Add reports for N-acetylcysteine and nebulization of 3% hydrogen peroxide. Revise section for high-dose vitamin C.